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July 03, 2023 4 min read

Electrical Muscle Stimulators (EMS) are devices that deliver electrical impulses to stimulate muscle contractions. These devices have been used to improve blood circulation in the lower leg and foot, providing potential relief for those suffering from conditions like peripheral artery disease (PAD), venous insufficiency, or diabetic neuropathy. They can also boost circulation for individuals who have a sedentary live or spend long periods seated but are otherwise healthy. 

Understanding Circulation and its Disorders 

To understand how EMS helps with circulation issues, it is helpful to appreciate the basics of the circulatory system and related disorders. The circulatory system, composed of the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The heart serves as the system's pump, pushing blood through the network of arteries and veins. 

Disorders of the circulatory system can occur when these vessels become narrowed or blocked, leading to insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues. This condition is known as Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). Similarly, venous insufficiency is a condition where the veins have difficulty sending blood from the legs back to the heart, typically due to damaged valves in the veins. In both these conditions, the lower leg and foot are often affected, causing pain, swelling, numbness, or tingling. 

In the case of diabetic neuropathy, high blood sugar levels cause damage to nerves in the feet and legs, leading to numbness and pain. While this is not a circulatory condition per se, improved blood circulation can help manage the condition and alleviate symptoms. 

The Mechanics of Electrical Muscle Stimulators 

Electrical Muscle Stimulators (EMS) use a process known as electric muscle stimulation. They transmit electrical impulses to targeted muscles via electrodes placed on the skin. These electrical impulses mimic the action potential coming from the central nervous system, causing the muscles to contract. 

An EMS device includes a series of electrodes attached to a unit that generates the electrical impulses. The intensity, pulse width, and pulse rate can be adjusted to tailor the stimulation to the individual's needs and tolerance levels. 

EMS and Circulation Improvement 

EMS devices stimulate muscles in the targeted area, causing them to contract and relax. This muscle movement acts similarly to physical exercise, enhancing blood circulation in the stimulated area. When EMS is applied to the lower leg and foot, it encourages increased blood flow through the veins and arteries in these regions. 

  • Enhanced Venous Return: The contraction and relaxation of muscles during EMS application can aid venous return – the process of blood flowing back to the heart. As the muscles contract, they compress the veins, pushing the blood towards the heart. When the muscles relax, the veins refill with blood. This process, known as the "muscle pump," is similar to what happens during physical activity. It is particularly beneficial for individuals with venous insufficiency, who have trouble sending blood from the legs back to the heart. 
  • Arterial Vasodilation: EMS can also stimulate arterial vasodilation, the widening of arteries, which allows for a greater volume of blood to reach the muscles and other tissues. This can be beneficial for individuals with Peripheral Artery Disease, whose arteries are narrowed or blocked. 
  • Increased Capillary Density: Long-term application of EMS has been suggested to increase capillary density in the muscles. More capillaries mean more pathways for blood to flow, enhancing overall circulation and nutrient delivery to the tissues. 

EMS and Symptom Relief 

By improving circulation, EMS can help alleviate the symptoms associated with poor blood flow to the lower leg and foot. It can help reduce swelling and pain, improve sensation, and speed up the healing process of wounds, which is crucial for diabetic patients. 

  • Reduced Edema: Improved venous return can help reduce edema, or swelling, often seen in the lower legs and feet due to venous insufficiency. 
  • Pain Relief: Increased blood flow brings more oxygen and nutrients to the area, helping tissues function better and potentially alleviating pain and discomfort. 
  • Improved Sensation: Better blood flow can also lead to improved sensation in the area, beneficial for those with diabetic neuropathy who experience numbness and tingling in their feet and legs. 
  • Wound Healing: Enhanced blood circulation speeds up the delivery of oxygen and nutrients, necessary for the healing process. This is particularly relevant for people with diabetes, who often struggle with slow-healing foot ulcers. 


While EMS can be a powerful tool for improving blood circulation in the lower leg and foot, it's crucial to remember that it should not replace traditional treatments for circulatory issues or diabetic neuropathy. It should be used as an adjunct therapy alongside other interventions like medication, exercise, proper nutrition, and in some cases, surgical procedures. 

It is essential to discuss with a healthcare professional before using EMS when there are undelying medical conditions and particularly for individuals with specific health conditions such as heart disease, epilepsy, or for those who are pregnant. Also, the placement of the electrodes, the settings of the EMS unit, and the duration of use should be adjusted to the individual's specific needs and monitored by a healthcare provider. 

In summary, EMS is an innovative approach to manage lower leg and foot circulation. By eliciting muscle contractions, EMS can stimulate venous return, promote arterial vasodilation, and increase capillary density. Consequently, it can alleviate symptoms like swelling, pain, numbness, and support wound healing. As we further our understanding of this technology, it continues to hold promise for enhancing the quality of life of those dealing with these conditions. 


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